TELOMERE & TELOMERASE

TELOMERE & TELOMERASE 2017-12-22T02:53:49+00:00

Telomere

  • Telomere (tel-uh-meer) from the Greek telos (end) and meros (part)

  • Telomeres are an essential part of human cells that affect how our cells age.

  • Telomeres are the caps at the end of each strand of DNA that protect our chromosomes, like the plastic tips at the end of shoelaces.

  • Without the coating, shoelaces become frayed until they can no longer do their job, just as without telomeres, DNA strands become damaged and our cells can’t do their job.

  • Telomeres are shortened as we age, but telomeres can also be shortened by stress, smoking, obesity, lack of exercise and a poor diet.

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telomeres telomerase supplements bill andrews anti aging supplements Causes of aging and Telomerase Induction

Telomerase

  • Telomerase, also called telomere terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds the polynucleotide “TTAGGG” to the 3′ end of telomeres, at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.

  • Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that carries its own RNA molecule (with the pattern of “CCCAAUCCC” in vertebrates), which is used as a template for adding new bases onto the ends of telomeres.

  • It can replace the section of telomere that is lost in each cell division, so the chromosomes don’t shorten.

Human aging and telomere

In humans, aging is an accumulation of changes over time, encompassing physical, psychological, and social change. Reaction time may slow with age, while knowledge and wisdom may expand. Aging is one of the greatest contributing risk factors for most human diseases, and of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds die from age-related causes.

The causes of aging can be ascribed to damage, whereby the accumulation of externally induced damage (such as DNA point mutations) may cause biological systems to fail, or to programmed aging, whereby internal processes (such as DNA telomere shortening) may cause aging.

Telomere-shortening can be seen as a programmed aging ‘disease’, and could be cured by lengthening telomeres via Telomerase induction.

telomeres telomerase supplements bill andrews anti aging supplements Causes of aging and Telomerase Induction

Telomere

  • Telomere (tel-uh-meer) from the Greek telos (end) and meros (part)

  • Telomeres are an essential part of human cells that affect how our cells age.

  • Telomeres are the caps at the end of each strand of DNA that protect our chromosomes, like the plastic tips at the end of shoelaces.

  • Without the coating, shoelaces become frayed until they can no longer do their job, just as without telomeres, DNA strands become damaged and our cells can’t do their job.

  • Telomeres are shortened as we age, but telomeres can also be shortened by stress, smoking, obesity, lack of exercise and a poor diet.

Telomerase

  • Telomerase, also called telomere terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds the polynucleotide “TTAGGG” to the 3′ end of telomeres, at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.

  • Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that carries its own RNA molecule (with the pattern of “CCCAAUCCC” in vertebrates), which is used as a template for adding new bases onto the ends of telomeres.

  • It can replace the section of telomere that is lost in each cell division, so the chromosomes don’t shorten.

Human aging and telomere

In humans, aging is an accumulation of changes over time, encompassing physical, psychological, and social change. Reaction time may slow with age, while knowledge and wisdom may expand. Aging is one of the greatest contributing risk factors for most human diseases, and of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds die from age-related causes.

The causes of aging can be ascribed to damage, whereby the accumulation of externally induced damage (such as DNA point mutations) may cause biological systems to fail, or to programmed aging, whereby internal processes (such as DNA telomere shortening) may cause aging.

Telomere-shortening can be seen as a programmed aging ‘disease’, and could be cured by lengthening telomeres via Telomerase induction.

About telomeres in general

What are chromosomes? 2017-12-13T05:56:46+00:00

Chromosomes are highly condensed rods of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), the genetic material which contains the building blocks of life. DNA carries a specific code that gives instructions to our body on how to grow, develop and function. The instructions are organized into units called genes. Chromosomes serve as the storage for this important material, periodically dividing along with cells and replicating to make copies of the DNA they contain.
Chromosomes are also very important in sexual reproduction, as they allow an organism to pass genetic material on to descendants. In organisms with cell nuclei, known as eukaryotes, chromosomes are found inside the nucleus.
Most of these organisms have a set of chromosomes which come in pairs. In structural cells, each cell retains a complete set of chromosomes, in what is known as diploid form, referring to the fact the chromosomes contain two copies of each gene. In cells for sexual reproduction like eggs or sperm, each cell only has half of the parent organism’s genetic material, stored in haploid form, ensuring that each parent passes down one copy of its genes.

What are telomeres? 2017-12-07T01:36:51+00:00

Telomeres are the ends of chromosomes, which have an essential role in protecting their integrity in the process of cellular replication. One common analogy is that they are like the plastic caps at the end of shoelaces which keep the laces from unraveling. Telomeres are formed by repeats of a DNA sequence, along with associated proteins.
The function of telomeres is to protect chromosome ends from chromosome fusions and degradation, therefore, ensuring the proper functionality and viability of cells.

What is telomerase? 2017-12-07T01:36:25+00:00

Telomerase is an enzyme which is able to elongate telomeres and repair short telomeres by re-elongating them. To this end, telomerase adds telomeric repeats to the chromosome ends. In non-pathological conditions telomerase is expressed in early stages of embryo development as well as in certain adult stem cell compartments. Telomerase is also highly expressed in pathological conditions, such as cancer, where it sustains the immortal growth of cancer cells. Healthy cells usually produce little or no telomerase and, as a consequence of this, they progressively shorten
their telomeres associated with successive cycles of cell division, until they reach a critically short length which triggers cell death or an irreversible cell arrest known as replicative senescence (also known as the Hayflick limit).

Why are telomeres important? 2017-12-07T01:32:48+00:00

Cells stop duplicating when telomeres become too short. Therefore telomere length is considered to be an excellent biomarker of tissue renewal capacity and, consequently, of organismal aging. Telomeres progressively shorten with increasing age as a consequence of cumulative cycles of cell division that are required for tissue repair and regeneration. This occurs both in differentiated cells as well as in stem cells. Telomere shortening has been demonstrated to impair the ability of stem cells to regenerate tissues when needed. Animal studies have shown that an accumulation of critically short telomeres causes more rapid aging. Interventions that decrease the rate of telomere shortening with age, such as enhancing telomerase, can delay aging and increase longevity. Thus, therapeutic strategies based on telomerase activation are envisioned as potentially important for intervening in agerelated problems.

Why does Life Length emphasize the median telomere length rather than the average (mean) value? 2017-12-07T01:30:40+00:00

Telomere length varies within each single cell, such that each chromosome end has a different length of telomeric repeats (there are 2 telomeres per chromosome and 23 pairs of chromosomes per cell). Average telomere length is the mean length of all telomeres considered together, usually within a population of cells (not even per individual cell). However, as the telomere length distribution of the cells is not symmetrical, the median telomere length is more representative of this distribution rather than the mean.

What is the difference between median telomere length and the 20th percentile and why is this important? 2017-12-07T01:36:03+00:00

The median telomere length represents the 50th percentile in the distribution of cell telomere lengths. In contrast, the 20th percentile indicates the telomere length below which 20% of the observed telomeres fall. As such it is an estimator of the percentage of short telomeres in the cells. This is important because mounting scientific evidence shows that it is the short telomeres that are responsible for causing aging and the collateral effects of aging. This is because critically short telomeres inflict permanent and deleterious damage to the cell, unless they are repaired by
telomerase. Therefore, to be able to evaluate whether telomeres are prematurely short for a given chronological age it is necessary to use techniques that allow quantification of the abundance of short telomeres. Just measuring average or median telomere length of a population of cells is not sufficient to identify premature telomere shortening. The superiority of the technology commercialized by Life Length is based on our ability to precisely measure telomeres individually, allowing for the quantification of short telomeres.

What is the relationship between biological age and chronological age that we can learn from our telomeres? 2017-12-22T03:49:56+00:00

Not all individuals age at the same rate even though they may have the same chronological age. Therefore, it is important to identify molecular markers (other than chronological age) that can estimate the degree of aging of an organism. This information is useful for health professionals and individuals alike to anticipate premature development of age-related issues and to try to consider changes in lifestyle (for instance, obesity and smoking have been shown to accelerate telomere attrition while exercise and good nutrition slow it), to follow more closely our telomere dynamics over the years, or to benefit from potential telomerase activators. Mounting evidence suggests that the length of telomeres is a good indicator of the degree of aging of an organism.

What are the factors that affect the length of my telomeres? 2017-12-22T03:50:26+00:00

Genetics and lifestyle are fundamental factors that affect telomere length and the rate at which they shorten. Certain life habits have been significantly associated with having longer or shorter telomeres. For example, smoking, obesity and psychological stress increase oxidative stress and inflammation which, in turn, contribute to higher rates of telomere attrition throughout life. Other factors such as diet, exercise, sleep are also believed to impact biological aging. Current therapies are being developed based on telomerase activation to rejuvenate telomeres. Measuring telomere length will be necessary to determine whether these therapies are effectively improving telomere length.

Why do I need to know my biological age? 2017-12-22T03:48:57+00:00

Firstly, it is an excellent indicator of an individual overall general health status. Secondly, knowing our biological age, it permits us to obtain a better understanding of the lifestyle habits that impact aging and affords us the opportunity to make appropriate changes and by periodic re-testing, measure the results. Thirdly, Life Length’s Telomere Analysis Technology (TAT), will allow for more personalized medicine as doctors treat patients increasingly taking into consideration their biological age.

How is this calculated? 2017-12-07T01:34:09+00:00

biological age is calculated using a mathematical formula which takes into consideration the individual’s chronological age group which is then weighted by their telomere length results.

How often should I get my telomeres measured? 2017-12-07T01:33:27+00:00

We recommend that individuals interested in monitoring their telomere length repeat the measurement annually, although periods of six months may be considered for individuals making significant lifestyle changes